Dr Raghu Radhakrishnan

Professor, Oral Pathology, MCODS, Manipal; Director of International Affairs & Collaborations, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal.

MDS, PhD

Department of Oral Pathology

CURRENT ACADEMIC ROLE & RESPONSIBILITIES

    Dr Raghu Radhakrishnan is a Oral Pathologist at Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal and the Director of Internatonal Affairs and Collaborations at Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal. As a professor in the department of oral pathology, he is actively involved in teaching and supervising postgraduates. In his role as Director, International Collaborations, he is involved in fostering academic and research cooperation globally.

SUBJECTS CURRENTLY TEACHING

Subject Subject code Semester
Dental Anatomy, Embryology & Oral histology First year BDS
Oral Pathology and Microbiology Second and third year BDS
Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology MDS

ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS

Degree Specialisation Institute Year of passing
BDS TN Dr MGR Medical University 1994
MDS Oral Pathology and Microbiology Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal 1997
PhD Oral Cancer Epigenetics Manipal 2009
Marie Curie Fellow Chemoprevention in oral cancer School of Clinical Dentistry, Sheffield, UK 2015
Wellcome Trust Fellow Oral Cancer Epigenetics Manipal Academy of Higher Education 2019-2024

Experience

Institution / Organisation Designation Role Tenure
Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal Director, International Collaborations 2017 till date
Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal Deputy Director, Research 2015-2017
The University of Sheffield, UK Marie Curie Fellow 2013-2015
Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Professor and Head 2010-2013
Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Professor 2008-2010
Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Associate Professor 2003-2008
Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Assistant Professor 1998-2003

Projects

Ongoing Projects:

1.  Title: Epithelial Reprograming of HOX Genes by Epigenetic Mechanisms and its implication to Oral Cancers.

IA/CPHI/18/1/503927                                                            

PI: Raghu Radhakrishnan                                                     

Duration: 01/09/19 - 01/08/24

EMR/2017/002792                                                                       

2. Title: Characterization of novel TGF-β1/SMAD regulated microRNAs in the rat model of oral Submucous Fibrosis

PI: Raghu Radhakrishnan

Duration: 25/09/18 - 24/9/21                                                                                                                                                  

3. TBI-GoK-Manipal-BioPharma                                     

PI: Raghu Radhakrishnan

Duration: 2/09/2018 – 1/09/2023                                                                                                                                                        

Title: Government of Karnataka – Manipal – Technology Business Incubator

Completed Projects

1. FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IIF                                     

CoPI: Raghu Radhakrishna

13/10/2013– 14/10/2015

Title: Understanding the functional role of Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta2 in the development of oral cancer

PhD Guide

Supervisor to two PhD Fellows

PhD Topic:

1.       Role of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in the Pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis and its Implications in Malignancy

2.       Characterization of novel TGF-β1/SMAD regulated microRNAs in the rat model of oral Submucous Fibrosis

Collaborations

1. Mohit Sharma, National
Department of Oral Pathology, Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences and Research, Greater Faridabad 121002, Haryana, India.

Pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis

2. Fonseca FP, International

Department of Oral Diagnosis and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Molecular Pathogensis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

3. Keith Hunter, International

Integrated Biosciences, School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

Hox Genes and Oral Cancer

Grants 

Characterization of novel TGF-β1/SMAD regulated microRNAs in the rat model of oral submucous fibrosis and the effect of Resveratrol as an Anti-Fibrotic Agent.  SERB, DST, New Delhi (2018, 3 years); 3.448.500 (INR)

Epithelial Reprograming of HOX Genes by Epigenetic Mechanisms and its implication to Oral CancersThe Welcome Trust/DBT India Alliance (2019, 5  years); 35.551.271 (INR)

Contributions

· Sivapathasundaram B, Raghu AR. Anatomy of human salivary gland, Manual of Salivary Gland Diseases, 1st edition, Jaypee Brothers, 2-21, Year – 2013,

· Sivapathasundaram B, Raghu AR, Rajendran R. Physiology and Functional disorders of salivary glands, Manual of Salivary Gland Diseases, Jaypee Brothers, 55-66, Year – 2013,

· Raghu Radhakrishnan, Bijayata Shrestha, Dipshikha Bajracharya. Oral Cancer. Edited by Kalu U. E. Ogbureke, Published by InTech, Croatia, Year 2012

· Sivapathasundaram B, Raghu AR, Dental Caries, Shafer’s textbook of Oral Pathology, 8th Edition

· Sivapathasundaram B. Raghu AR, Dental Caries. Shafer’s textbook of Oral Pathology, 7th edition Volume: - Year: 2012, Elsevier, 419 – 474

· Sivapathasundaram B. Raghu AR, Dental Caries. Shafer’s textbook of Oral Pathology, 6th edition Volume: - Year: 2009, Elsevier, 409 – 473

· Sivapathasundaram B, Raghu AR, Dental Caries. Shafer’s textbook of Oral Pathology, 5th edition Volume: - Year: 2006, Elsevier, 567 – 658

· Radhakrishnan AN, Raghu AR. Periodontics Made Easy   Year: 2006, CBS Publishers

Awards and Recognition

Dates   

Award  

  Awarding Institution

2019

Member - Executive Council

Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists

2019

Wellcome Trust Fellowship

Department of Biotechnology India Alliance

2017

Dr. TMA Pai Gold Medal

Best Research at Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal

2015

Marie Sklodowska Curie Individual Fellowship

European Union’s Seventh Research Framework Programme (FP7) at the University of Sheffield

2013

Mentor – Best Case Report

XIII National Post Graduate Convention of IAOMP, Thirupathi, AP

2013

Mentor - Best Case Report, Best Review, Best paper on novel marker, Best poster configuration

National Midterm Conference of the IAOMP, Chennai, TN

2012

Best Teacher Award

Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal

2012

Travel Fellowship

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research to attend the AAOMP meet at Minneapolis, MN, USA

2011

Mentor - Best Poster

Prevalence of Candida species in HIV positive subjects in Udupi District XX National Conference of IAOMP, Hyderabad

2011

Research Incentive Award

Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal

2010

Travel Fellowship

Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India to attend 15th International Congress on Oral Pathology and Medicine

2010

Travel Award

International Association of Oral Pathologists, to attend 15th International Congress on Oral Pathology and Medicine

2009

ISDR Fellowship

Indian Society of Dental Research

2007

Travel Fellowship

Department of Science & Technology to attend Gordon Research Conference on Cancer Genetics and Epigenetics at Barga, Italy

2006

Best poster

Manipal University Scientific meet, for the poster  “DNA methylation as an epigenetic marker in oral cancer

2003 – 2006

Faculty Research fellowship

Manipal Foundation for the PhD work titled “Molecular pathogenesis of human oral cancer by epigenetic mechanism

AREAS OF INTEREST, EXPERTISE AND RESEARCH

Area of Interest

1. Oral Cancer and Epigenetics 2. Molecular understanding of Oral submucous Fibrosis 3. Prognostic markers in early stages of oral cancer 4. Molecular mechanisms of oral carcinogenesis

Area of Expertise

1. Oral Cancer and Epigenetics 2. Molecular understanding of Oral submucous Fibrosis 3. Prognostic markers in early stages of oral cancer 4. Molecular mechanisms of oral carcinogenesis

Professional Affiliations & Contributions

1.       International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists

2.       International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists

 

1. Silva, L. C., Fonseca, F. P., Almeida, O. P., Mariz, B. A., Lopes, M. A., Radhakrishnan, R., Sharma, M., Kowalski, L. P. & Vargas, P. A., CD1a+ and CD207+ cells are reduced in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 25, 1, p. e49-e554.    

2. Porta, C. M., Mann, E. M., Amiri, R., Avery, M. D., Azim, S., Conway-Klaassen, J. M., Golzareh, P., Joya, M., Mwikarago, E. I., Nejabi, M. B., Olejniczak, M., Radhakrishnan, R., Tengera, O., Thomas, M. S., Weinkauf, J. L. & Wiesner, S. M., 01-01-2020, Higher education institution partnership to strengthen the health care workforce in Afghanistan. International Journal of Higher Education. 9, 2, p. 95-106 12 p  

1.       Porta, C. M., Mann, E. M., Amiri, R., Avery, M. D., Azim, S., Conway-Klaassen, J. M., Golzareh, P., Joya, M., Mwikarago, E. I., Nejabi, M. B., Olejniczak, M., Radhakrishnan, R., Tengera, O., Thomas, M. S., Weinkauf, J. L. & Wiesner, S. M., 01-01-2020, Higher education institution partnership to strengthen the health care workforce in Afghanistan. International Journal of Higher Education. 9, 2, p. 95-106 12 p

1.       Porta, C. M., Mann, E. M., Amiri, R., Avery, M. D., Azim, S., Conway-Klaassen, J. M., Golzareh, P., Joya, M., Mwikarago, E. I., Nejabi, M. B., Olejniczak, M., Radhakrishnan, R., Tengera, O., Thomas, M. S., Weinkauf, J. L. & Wiesner, S. M., 01-01-2020, Higher education institution partnership to strengthen the health care workforce in Afghanistan. International Journal of Higher Education. 9, 2, p. 95-106 12 p

3. Sharma M, Radhakrishnan R. A two-way relationship between the head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer. Oral Oncol. 2019 Oct;97:139-140

 

4. Nunes FB, Sant'Ana MSP, Silva AMB, Agostini M, Silva Canedo NH, de Andrade BAB, Romañach MJ, Corrêa DL, Tomasi RA, Radhakrishnan R, Gomez RS, de Sousa SF, Brennan PA, Fonseca FP. Solitary fibrous tumour of the oral cavity: An update. J Oral Pathol Med. 2019 Aug 19

5. Sah P, Patel P, Chandrashekar C, Martena S, Ballal M, Hegde M, Guddattu V, Murdoch C, Sharma M, Radhakrishnan R. Oral candidal carriage correlates with CD4(+) cell count but not with HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy status. J Investig Clin Dent. 2019 Jul 17:e12438.

6. Sharma M, Radhakrishnan R. Revisiting and revising the definition of oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Oncol. 2019 May;92:94.

7. Smitha T, Sivapathasundaram B, Radhakrishnan R, Thavarajah R, Babu A, Jayanthi P. Proceedings of JOMFP panel discussion on publication, ethics and research, held in XVII National IAOMP PG Convention 2018. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2018 Sep-Dec;22(3):436-440.

8. Platais C, Radhakrishnan R, Niklander Ebensperger S, Morgan R, Lambert DW, Hunter KD. Targeting HOX-PBX interactions causes death in oral potentially malignant and squamous carcinoma cells but not normal oral keratinocytes. BMC Cancer. 2018 Jul 6;18(1):723.

9. Chandrashekar C, Sen S, Narayanaswamy V, Radhakrishnan R. A curious case of central odontogenic fibroma: A novel perspective. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2018  Jan;22(Suppl 1):S16-S19. doi: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_156_16.

10. Sharma M, Shetty SS, Radhakrishnan R. Oral Submucous Fibrosis as an Overhealing Wound: Implications in Malignant Transformation. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2018;13(3):272-291.

11. Tobouti PL, Bolt R, Radhakrishnan R, de Sousa SCOM, Hunter KD. Altered Toll-like receptor expression and function in HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2017 Jul 4;9(1):236-248.

12. Kulkarni S, Chandrashekar C, Kudva R, Radhakrishnan R. Giant-cell fibroma: Understanding the nature of the melanin-laden cells. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2017 Sep-Dec;21(3):429-433.

13. Jayaprakash C, Radhakrishnan R, Ray S, Satyamoorthy K. Promoter methylation of MGMT in oral carcinoma: A population-based study and meta-analysis. Arch Oral  Biol. 2017 Aug;80:197-208.

14. Jayaprakash C, Varghese VK, Bellampalli R, Radhakrishnan R, Ray S, Kabekkodu  SP, Satyamoorthy K. Hypermethylation of Death-Associated Protein Kinase (DAPK1) and its association with oral carcinogenesis - An experimental and meta-analysis  study. Arch Oral Biol. 2017 Aug;80:117-129.

15. Bhat S, Kabekkodu SP, Jayaprakash C, Radhakrishnan R, Ray S, Satyamoorthy K.  Gene promoter-associated CpG island hypermethylation in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Virchows Arch. 2017 Apr;470(4):445-454.

16. Patel PN, Sah P, Chandrashekar C, Vidyasagar S, Venkata Rao J, Tiwari M, Radhakrishnan R. Oral candidal speciation, virulence and antifungal susceptibility in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017 Mar;125:10-19.

17. Singh P, Grover J, Byatnal AA, Guddattu V, Radhakrishnan R, Solomon MC. Elucidating the role of Cyclooxygenase-2 in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus - an immunohistochemical study with supportive histochemical analysis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2017 May;46(5):381-386.

18. Shrestha B, Bajracharya D, Byatnal AA, Kamath A, Radhakrishnan R. May High MMP-2 and TIMP-2 Expressions Increase or Decrease the Aggressivity of Oral Cancer? Pathol Oncol Res. 2017 Jan;23(1):197-206.

19. Sharma M, Radhakrishnan R. Limited mouth opening in oral submucous fibrosis: reasons, ramifications, and remedies. J Oral Pathol Med. 2017 Jul;46(6):424-430.

20. Chandrasekar C, Salati N, Rao L, Radhakrishnan R. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandibular anterior region: The role of immunohistochemical markers in its definitive diagnosis. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2016 Sep-Dec;20(3):505-509.

21. Sharma M, Radhakrishnan R. Unfavourable stoichiometry of PAI-1 and tPA foments OSMF. Oral Oncol. 2016 Jul;58:e1-3.

22. Sharma M, Radhakrishnan R. CTGF is obligatory for TGF-β1 mediated fibrosis in OSMF. Oral Oncol. 2016 May;56:e10-1.

23. Amit-Byatnal A, Natarajan J, Shenoy S, Kamath A, Hunter K, Radhakrishnan R. A 3 dimensional assessment of the depth of tumor invasion in microinvasive tongue squamous cell carcinoma--A case series analysis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015 Nov 1;20(6):e645-50.

24. Patel PN, Thennavan A, Sen S, Chandrashekar C, Radhakrishnan R. Translationaapproach utilizing COX-2, p53, and MDM2 expressions in malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis. J Oral Sci. 2015 Sep;57(3):169-76.

25. Sharma M, Astekar M, Soi S, Manjunatha BS, Shetty DC, Radhakrishnan R. pH Gradient Reversal: An Emerging Hallmark of Cancers. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2015;10(3):244-58.

26. Kamath AT, Radhakrishnan R, Bhagania M, Mohan A. Tuberculous osteomyelitis of the mandible. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2015 Mar;14(Suppl 1):200-2.

27. Natarajan J, Hunter K, Mutalik VS, Radhakrishnan R. Overexpression of S100A4  as a biomarker of metastasis and recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Appl Oral Sci. 2014 Sep-Oct;22(5):426-33.

28. Byatnal AA, Rakheja M, Byatnal AR, Narayanaswamy V, Radhakrishnan R. An infiltrative angioarchitectural variant of arteriovenous malformation of temporalis. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Sep;8(9):ZD04-6.

29. Aparna M, Natarajan J, Arumugam C, Radhakrishnan R. Primary synovial sarcoma of the maxilla. J Cancer Res Ther. 2014 Jul-Sep;10(3):739-41.

30. Natarajan J, Chandrashekar C, Radhakrishnan R. Critical biomarkers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the head and neck cancers. J Cancer Res Ther. 2014 Jul-Sep;10(3):512-8.

31. Aparna M, Rao L, Kunhikatta V, Radhakrishnan R. The role of MMP-2 and MMP-9 as prognostic markers in the early stages of tongue squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med. 2015 May;44(5):345-52.

32. Mutalik VS, Nichat P, Carnelio S, Solomon M, Radhakrishnan R. Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor without calcification: a rarity. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2014 Jan 1;15(1):119-21.

33. Aparna M, Chakravarthy A, Acharya SR, Radhakrishnan R. A clinical report demonstrating the significance of distinguishing a nasopalatine duct cyst from a  radicular cyst. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Mar 18;2014. pii: bcr2013200329.

34. Bajracharya D, Shrestha B, Kamath A, Menon A, Radhakrishnan R. Immunohistochemical correlation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 in tobacco associated epithelial dysplasia. Dis Markers.

35. Sah P, Kamath A, Aramanadka C, Radhakrishnan R. Kimura's disease - An unusual presentation involving subcutaneous tissue, parotid gland and lymph node. J Oral  Maxillofac Pathol. 2013 Sep;17(3):455-9.

36. Kabekkodu SP, Bhat S, Radhakrishnan R, Aithal A, Mascarenhas R, Pandey D, Rai L, Kushtagi P, Mundyat GP, Satyamoorthy K. DNA promoter methylation-dependent transcription of the double C2-like domain β (DOC2B) gene regulates tumor growth  in human cervical cancer. J Biol Chem. 2014 Apr 11;289(15):10637-49.

37. Byatnal AA, Rao AC, Solomon MC, Radhakrishnan RA. A guise of osteosarcoma: chondroblastoma-like. Indian J Dent Res. 2013 Sep-Oct;24(5):631-4.

38. Byatnal AA, Byatnal A, Singh A, Narayanaswamy V, Radhakrishnan R. Bilateral impacted inverted mesiodens associated with dentigerous cyst. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2013 Oct;41(10):753-7.

39. Sharma M, Sah P, Sharma SS, Radhakrishnan R. Molecular changes in invasive front of oral cancer. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2013 May;17(2):240-7.

40. Sah P, Menon A, Kamath A, Chandrashekar C, Carnelio S, Radhakrishnan R. Role  of immunomarkers in the clinicopathological analysis of unicystic ameloblastoma.  Dis Markers. 2013;35(5):481-8.

41. Patel PN, Mutalik VS, Rehani S, Radhakrishnan R. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity with incongruent clinical course. BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Sep 19;2013. pii: bcr2013200441.

42. Sah P, Byatnal AA, Rao L, Narayanaswamy V, Radhakrishnan R. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: a rapidly growing soft tissue mass in the posterior mandible. Head Neck Pathol. 2013 Dec;7(4):393-7.

43. Sen S, Kamath A, Gupta M, Radhakrishnan R. A localised soft tissue and bone enlargement in an infant mandible. BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Jun 20;2013. pii: bcr2013010291.

44. Thennavan A, Rao L, Radhakrishnan R. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of maxillary alveolus metastasising to the abdomen: the role of immunomarkers in diagnosis. BMJ Case Rep. 2013 May 8;2013. pii: bcr2013009633

45. Kaur GA, Sivapathasundharam B, Berkovitz BK, Radhakrishnan RA. An erupted odontoma associated with pigmentation: a histogenetic and histological perspective. Indian J Dent Res. 2012 Sep-Oct;23(5):699.

46. Aparna M, Gupta M, Sujir N, Kamath A, Solomon M, Pai K, Radhakrishnan R. Calcifying odontogenic cyst: a rare report of a nonneoplastic variant associated  with cholesterol granuloma. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2013 Nov 1;14(6):1178-82.

47. Mutalik VS, Menon A, Jayalakshmi N, Kamath A, Raghu AR. Utility of cheiloscopy, rugoscopy, and dactyloscopy for human identification in a defined cohort. J Forensic Dent Sci. 2013 Jan;5(1):2-6.

48. Bose R, Adiga SK, D'Souza F, Salian SR, Uppangala S, Kalthur G, Jain N, Radhakrishnan RA, Bhat N, Krishnamurthy H, Kumar P. Germ cell abnormalities in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice do not correlate with blood glucose level. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012 Dec;29(12):1405-13.

49. Thennavan A, Narayanaswamy V, Niazi TM, Rao L, Radhakrishnan R. Infantile myofibroma eroding into the frontal bone: a case report and review of its histopathologic differential diagnosis. Case Rep Pediatr. 2012;2012:630804.

50. Mutalik VS, Shreshtha A, Mutalik SS, Radhakrishnan R. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A unique report with histological diversity. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2012 Jan;16(1):118-21.

51. Radhakrishnan R. Inherited proliferative oral disorder: a reductionist approach to proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Indian J Dent Res. 2011 May-Jun;22(3):365-6.

52. Radhakrishnan R. Chewing the very teeth because it bites: An anthropological  forensics by stable isotope profiling. J Forensic Dent Sci. 2011 Jan;3(1):1-2.

53. Radhakrishnan R, Kabekkodu S, Satyamoorthy K. DNA hypermethylation as anepigenetic mark for oral cancer diagnosis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011 Oct;40(9):665-76.

54. Pandey A, Setty S, Rao R, Radhakrishnan R. Assessment of Langerhans cells in  oral lichen planus by ATPase histochemistry: a clinicopathologic correlation. Quintessence Int. 2011 Mar;42(3):225-34. PubMed PMID: 21465009.

55. Kumar U, Vij H, Vij R, Kharbanda J, Aparna I, Radhakrishnan R. Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor of the peripheral variant mimicking epulis. Int J Dent. 2010;2010:519494.

56. Sharma M, Bairy I, Pai K, Satyamoorthy K, Prasad S, Berkovitz B, Radhakrishnan R. Salivary IL-6 levels in oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and its  clinical relevance to tobacco habits and periodontitis. Clin Oral Investig. 2011  Oct;15(5):705-14.

57. Bishen KA, Radhakrishnan R, Satyamoorthy K. The role of basic fibroblast growth factor in oral submucous fibrosis pathogenesis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008 Aug;37(7):402-11.

58. Radhakrishnan R, Solomon M, Satyamoorthy K, Martin LE, Lingen MW. Tissue microarray - a high-throughput molecular analysis in head and neck cancer. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008 Mar;37(3):166-76.

59. Radhakrishnan R, Suhas S, Kumar RV, Krishnanand G, Srinivasan R, Rao NN. Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity in an HIV-positive child. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005 Dec;100(6):725-31.

60. Raghu AR, Tandon S, Rao NN, Singh R, Rekha VK. Intraoral papillary endothelial hyperplasia: case discussion with supportive histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2005 Spring;29(3):253-7.

61. Thomas S, Suhas S, Pai KM, Raghu AR. Lupus vulgaris--report of a case with facial involvement. Br Dent J. 2005 Feb 12;198(3):135-7.

62. Pillai RS, Ongole R, Ahsan A, Radhakrishnan RA, Pai KM. Recurrent desmoplastic ameloblastoma of the maxilla: a case report. J Can Dent Assoc. 2004  Feb;70(2):100-4. PubMed PMID: 14756940.

63. Raghu AR, Nirmala NR, Sreekumaran N. Direct immunofluorescence in oral lichen  planus and oral lichenoid reactions. Quintessence Int. 2002 Mar;33(3):234-9.

64. Jose M, Raghu AR, Rao NN. Evaluation of mast cells in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction. Indian J Dent Res. 2001 Jul-Sep;12(3):175-9.

65. Raghu AR, Rao NN. Immunofluorescence in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid  reaction. A review. Indian J Dent Res. 2001 Jan-Mar;12(1):29-34. 

Methylation regulated genes as diagnostic and prognostic marker for early detection of oral cancer--submitted to Regional Indian Patent Office, Chennai.