Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Details of  the publications of the department can be viewed at:

                                 Publication & Research Output

1.     Geethu, M and Vrundha, R and Raja, Selvaraj and Chandrashekar, Raghu H and Divyashree, MS (2019) 

Improvement of the Production and Characterisation of Polyhydroxyalkanoate by Bacillus endophyticus Using Inexpensive Carbon Feedstock.

Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 27 (1). pp. 917-928. ISSN 1566-2543

The study aimed at the production and characterization of biopolymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by Bacillus endophyticus. The usage of refined (sucrose 2–4%) and inexpensive unrefined (sugar cane molasses 2–4%) carbon source was evaluated by varying the media components via shake flask method and batch cultivation in bioreactor. The optimal PHA production of 10.7 g/L of PHA from 15.37 g/L of cell density was obtained using 4% sugarcane molasses (SCM) at 250 rpm using optimized medium obtained through statistical experimental design. Batch cultivation with increased agitation rate and addition of feeding nutrients provided by SCM significantly lead to enhanced PHA production by the test organism by increasing the overall cell density. According to the statistical model, the increase in the sugar concentration (>4%) by SCM had a negative effect on PHA production. Characterization by FTIR and 1 H NMR was performed to confirm the biopolymer that has been produced by Bacillus spp.

2.       Amuthan, Arul and Devi, Vasudha and Sreedhara, CS and Rao, Venkata Josyula and Jasphin, Shiny (2019) 

Vernonia cinerea (neichitti keerai) regenerates proximal tubules in cisplatininduced Renal damage in mice.

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 12 (1). pp. 332-335. ISSN 0974-2441

The aim of the study was to evaluate whether Vernonia cinerea (VC) regenerates the proximal renal tubular cells in cisplatin-induced necrosis in male Swiss albino mice.Methods: The crude aqueous extract (CAE) of VC was fractionated from non-polar to polar using different solvents. Mice were injected a single dose of cisplatin (15 mg/kg) on day 1, which took 5 days to cause maximal renal damage. From day 6, CAE and all fractions were orally administered (200, 300, and 400 mg/kg) for 5 continuous days. On day 11, blood was collected to estimate urea and creatinine. Kidney was collected for histology and grading was done.Results: Cisplatin induced proximal renal tubular damage (grade 5) in corticomedullary junction, characterized by necrosis, proximal tubular dilatation, inflammation and vasodilation. Aqueous fraction (AF) did not show any regeneration; whereas, 400 mg/kg dose of CAE and butanol fraction (BF) showed a significant reduction (p<0.001) in proximal tubular damage (Grade 3) and 50–75% regeneration of proximal tubular epithelial cells.Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate the regenerative potential of Neichitti kashayam (CAE of VC) and its BF in cisplatin-induced proximal tubular damage in kidney. Further study is warranted to find out the dose regimen for complete regeneration, lead compounds, and molecular mechanism.

3.       Manda, Vyshnavi and Rao, Venkata J and Hariharapura, Raghu Chandrashekar (2019) 


siRNA intervention inhibiting viral replication and delivery strategies for treating herpes simplex viral infection.

Virus diseases, 9 (30). pp. 1-6. ISSN 2347-3584

The effective treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections generally involves the use of antiviral nucleoside drugs, but with increasing reports of antiviral resistance, the use of these drugs is challenged. Hence, a need arises to explore alternate treatment options. In this review we have discussed various targets that have been explored to control the HSV replication using siRNA therapeutics. We have also discussed the advantages of targeting a less explored UL10 gene to develop an alternate therapeutic intervention. Gene silencing can induce an inhibitory activity to virus spread and infection. The capacity and suitability of UL10 gene as siRNA induced silencing target in eliciting the desired antiviral effect in patients is identified and particularly discussed. The major challenge associated with the siRNA therapeutics is their delivery. The various viable delivery options, that are being explored in the recent times is summarized and different delivery pathways and strategies are reviewed as a part of the study.

4.       Singh, Prabhjeet and Anand, Meena K and Jesil, Mathew A (2018) 

Antiplaque efficacy of ganoderma lucidum toothpaste - An in vitro study.

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 11 (11). pp. 300-303. ISSN 0974-2441

The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Ganoderma lucidum toothpaste as an antiplaque agent and to compare its efficacy with herbal toothpaste and mouthwash. Methods: Pooled saliva was collected in a sterile container from the volunteers after taking the consent. Tissue culture plate with 12 (3 × 4) wells was chosen. Pooled saliva of 20 mL was added to each well using the micropipette and was kept in the incubator at 37°C for 72 h. After 72 h, saliva was removed without touching the walls or the base of the wells. Each row was treated either with slurry prepared with Ganoderma/herbal/Colgate total toothpaste or herbal/chlorhexidine mouthwash/distilled water. One row of wells was kept as a control using erythrosine dye. After 30 s, all the wells were rinsed with distilled water. Erythrosine dye was added to all the wells, kept for 30 s, and rinsed with distilled water. The tissue culture plate was kept in the ELx800MS machine (ELISA reader) which was set at 540 nm, and the readings were obtained. Results: The results showed that G. lucidum toothpaste slurry reduced plaque than herbal and chlorhexidine mouthwash. However, there was no significant difference in plaque reduction between herbal and G. lucidum toothpaste slurries. Conclusion: The present study concluded that G. lucidum had better antiplaque efficacy than herbal toothpaste, herbal mouthwash, and chlorhexidine mouthwash.

5.       Muralidharan, Anuraag and Rao, Venkata J and Raghu, Chandrasekhar H (2018) 

Exploring the potential of marine microbes in clinical management of Alzheimer's disease: A road map for bioprospecting and identifying promising isolates.


Life Sciences, 208. pp. 149-160. ISSN 0024-3205

Pervasiveness of Alzheimer's disease (AD) across the globe is on rise, devitalizing the essential brain functions of the afflicted individual. Multiple neurological pathways viz., cholinergic, amyloidogenic and tau protein pathways underlying the disease and interdependence make it more complex to develop effective treatment strategies. Existing drug treatments for Alzheimer's disease majorly belong to the class of cholinergic inhibitors which improve the behavioral symptoms. But there are no drugs that could arrest the disease progression. Inhibition of beta secretase enzyme could prevent the deposition of amyloid plaques in the neurons, thereby arresting the disease progression. Search for novel drugs to treat the underlying pathogenesis of the disease is pivotal in this day and age. The source of most active lead molecules discovered recently is from the nature. Marine ecosystem provides a plethora of pharmacologically lead molecules from various living organisms inhabiting the sea. Among all, marine microbes are the most under-explored and indispensable source of many bioactive metabolites. Studies have been reported on potent metabolites from marine microbes which could inhibit the key enzymes involved in the AD pathogenesis. The advancement in microbial bioprospecting and molecular biology techniques have eased the process of cultivation and identification of microbes, isolation of novel bioactive metabolites of clinical use. Exploring such marine natural resources for pharmacological lead molecules could give a breakthrough in the drug discovery domain for treating AD such debilitating diseases. In this review, a comprehensive account of bioprospecting methods and reports of marine microbial isolates are discussed.


  1. Kasinathan N, Amirthalingam M, Reddy ND, Jagani HV, Volety SM, Rao JV. In-situ implant containing PCL-curcumin nanoparticles developed using design of experiments. Drug Delivery 2016, 23(3):1017-25.
  2. Kasinathan N, Volety SM, Josyula VR. Chondroitinase:  A promising therapeutic enzyme. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 2016, 42(3):474-84.
  3. Alex AT, Joseph A, Shavi G, Rao JV, Udupa N. Development and evaluation of carboplatin-loaded PCL nanoparticles for intranasal delivery. Drug Delivery 2016, 23(7), 2144-2153.
  4. Mradul Tiwari, Prateek Jain, Hariharapura Raghu Chandrashekhar, Kashinathan Narayanan, Udaya Bhat K., Nayanabhirama Udupa, Josyula Venkata Rao. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles using copper-resistant Bacillus cereus, a soil isolate. Process Biochemistry, 2016, 51(10), 1348-1356.
  5. Kasinathan N, Amirthalingam M, Reddy ND, Vanthi MB, Volety SM, Rao JV. Polycaprolactone-based in situ implant containing curcumin –PLGA nanoparticles prepared using the multivariate technique. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2016, 44(6), 1520-8.
  6. Kumar, N., Biswas, S., Mathew, A.E., Varghese, S., Mathew, J.E., Nandakumar, K., Aranjani, J.M. and Lobo, R., Pro-apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of enriched fraction of Elytranthe parasitica (L.) Danser against HepG2 Hepatocellular carcinoma. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016. 16(1), 420.



2010 - 2015