Abstract: Background: The specific treatment recommendations for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) differ based on a particular guideline. The goal of pharmacotherapy is to achieve the target HbA1c and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels to avoid disease complications. Objective: To evaluate the profile of T2DM patients on different antidiabetic treatment regimens and the factors leading to dose escalation in these patients. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was conducted at Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, a tertiary care teaching hospital, over a period of one year. The study population comprised of patients with T2DM for ≥5 years. The demographic and clinical data were collected during the baseline and follow-up visits. Results: Of the 119 patients studied, 59.7% were males; 32.8% were ≥65 years of age. A significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose (FBG) on follow-up was seen (p = 0.028) in patients on sulfonylurea and metformin combination. A significant decrease in the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was seen in patients on sulfonylurea with metformin and pioglitazone (p = 0.011); sulfonylurea with metformin, pioglitazone, and sitagliptin (p = 0.026); and metformin with insulin (p = 0.001). Patients who received dose escalation had a longer duration of the disease (p = 0.042), higher FBG (p = 0.039) and HbA1c (p = 0.05). Conclusion: A combination of metformin with sulfonylurea was the preferred first-line treatment; insulin was added when HbA1c was >9. Patients who received dose escalation had a longer duration of the disease and higher FBG and HbA1c.