Assessment of Influence of Smoking on Gingival Biotype of Smokers, Former Smokers and Non-Smokers: A Cross Sectional Study.

2021-28-04 Dentistry

ABSTRACT Background: Smoking is a leading cause of death in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the pack years and gingival biotype of smokers, former smokers and non- smokers. The study was done as a tool to motivate patients to stop smoking by showing them the ill- effects of smoking on the oral tissues Materials And Methods: The gingival biotype was found of the maxillary central incisors by using a No. 15 endodontic file and measuring it with a scale to the nearest millimeter. Pack years was calculated. The grade of bleeding on probing was assessed by Mombelli’s gingival bleeding index using a periodontal probe. The inter group comparison of the gingival biotype, gingival bleeding on probing was done by ANOVA and Posthoc Tukey Test. Results: We found that smokers had a thicker gingival biotype as compared to non- smokers and former smokers. Bleeding on probing was higher in non- smokers and former smokers than non- smokers. As the number of pack years increased a slight increase in the thickness of gingiva was also seen. Conclusion: Smoking causes inflammation of the gingiva. This leads to loss of objective signs of periodontal problems, which may cause a delay in the patients visiting dentists for periodontal treatment. The findings in this study also proved that after cessation of smoking it is possible for gingival health to slowly come back to normal. Thus, the findings of this study can be used as a patient education and motivation tool to terminate the habit of smoking Keywords: Smoking, Gingival biotype, Bleeding on Probing.