Influence of Psychosocial Factors and Parafunctional Habits in Temporomandibular Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Study
Introduction: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are abnormalities affecting the temporomandibular joint, jaw muscles, or both. An intrinsic relationship reportedly exists between TMDs and psychosocial factors, including stress. Parafunctional habits such as bruxism and clenching are also known to be responsible for TMDs. Objective: To determine the association of anxiety, depression, and bruxism with TMD symptoms and their relationship with age and sex. Methods: Patients included in the study reported, as their chief concern, pain lasting for more than a week in the temporomandibular joint area and/or masticatory muscles. The patients were divided into age groups as follows: Younger than 20 years, 21 to 30 years, 31 to 40 years, 41 to 50 years, 51 to 60 years, and above 60 years. Patients were examined clinically and were asked to complete an anamnestic questionnaire (modified version of Helkimo Anamnestic Index) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Seventy-five patients (55 women, 20 men) were included in the study. The prevalence of TMDs was higher in female patients, of whom 33 (60%) had moderate to severe TMDs. Of the 20 male patients, 12 (60%) had signs and symptoms of moderate TMDs. Anxiety and depression scores were higher in female patients. No significant correlation was found between degree of malocclusion and TMDs. Discussion: We found correlations between the degree of TMD with age, sex, parafunctional habits, and psychosocial factors. Symptoms of TMD seemed to increase in patients with parafunctional habits, from younger to older age groups, and with increased anxiety and depression scores. Conclusion: The degree of TMDs is higher in women, and TMDs are associated with higher anxiety and depression scores. Correlation between these factors paves the way for preventive actions aimed at those with moderate and severe signs of TMDs.