Dr Vishnu Prasad S

Associate Professor

Department of Microbiology

CURRENT ACADEMIC ROLE & RESPONSIBILITIES

    Dr Vishnu Prasad S teaches postgraduate and undergraduate students.
    He is:

    • Incharge of Mycobacteriology Diagnostic Division of Microbiology.
    • Teacher guardian for UG Students.

SUBJECTS CURRENTLY TEACHING

Subject Subject code Semester
Microbiology MBBS 3rd, 4th and 5th semester
Microbiology MD

ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS

Degree Specialisation Institute Year of passing
PhD MIcrobiology Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 2009
MSc Microbiology Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 1996

Experience

Institution / Organisation Designation Role Tenure
KMC, Manipal Associate Professor 2013 till date
KMC, Manipal Selection Grade Lecturer 2008 to 2013
KMC, Manipal Senior Grade Lecturer 2003 to 2008
KMC, Manipal Lecturer 1997 to 2003

Induction of resistance to fluoroquinolones in clinical and environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

2007-01-01 Mamatha Ballal PG Shivananda

Induction of resistance to fluoroquinolones in clinical and environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2007. An attempt to induce resistance to ciprofloxacin in vitro was made against clinical and environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This in vitro manipulation of strains resulted in the increase of minimum inhibitory concentration from 0.4 microg/ml to 1 microg/ml of the original strains to 9.0 to12.5 microg/ml indicating development of resistance to ciprofloxacin and a major decrease in the size of zone diameters of norfloxacin and ofloxacin indicating cross resistance to these agents. Results indicate the induced resistance to ciprofloxacin can promote development of cross resistance to other fluoroquinolones. This suggests that caution should be taken while using fluoroquinolones for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

Paraffin Baiting system for demonstration of Growth and Biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Mamatha Ballal PG Shivananda

Paraffin baiting system for demonstration of growth and biofilm production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Indian J Exp Biol, 2007. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the commonest pathogens among the pseudomonads. This organism can grow in minimal nutritional requirements. Because of the ability of pseudomonads to grow on paraffin is not commonly found among other human pathogens and the primary human pathogen being P. aeruginosa, we studied the adaptation of this organism to paraffin baiting system for growth and biofilm formation. Strains were tested for the capacity to use paraffin as the sole source of carbon using Czapek's minimal salt medium. Of the 53 clinical isolates of P aeruginosa, 20 strains exhibited growth by 24 hrs and 42 strains by 48 hrs. The remaining strains did not show any growth in the paraffin baiting system. The oxidase test with the paraffin baiting system was also performed. This simple and inexpensive method can be used to isolate and demonstrate the biochemical and biofilm forming capacity of the organism.

Modified fish meal extract agar: a new medium for the selective isolation of pseudomonas aeruginosa –a preliminary report

2009-01-01 Mamatha Ballal PG Shivananda Prasad V

Modified fish meal extract agar, A new medium for the selective isolation of pseudomonas aeruginosa- A preliminary report, JIMSA. A new bacteriological medium Modified Fish Meal Extract A (FMEA) gar was tested for its efficacy in promoting the growth of P aeruginosa normally encountered in clinical specimens. 50 specimens each of sputum, pus and urine were cultured on Modified Fish Meal Extract Agar and the results were compared with normal Nutrient agar and Blood agar. There was 100% conformity in the results compared with the other selective media for Pseudomonas aerugin osa. One of the greatest advantages of this Modified FMEA was that no other organisms grew in culture other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion - The cost of consumable materials used in the preparation of fish meal extract agar being simple and cheap, this medium can be used successfully in the routine culture work for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeurginosa from clinical specimens like sputum.

Action of heavy metals on Pseudomonas aeruginosa from infected wounds

2009-01-01 Mamatha Ballal PG Shivananda

Action of heavy metals on Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from infected wounds, Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine, 2009. Objective - A study was undertaken to examine the effects of the heavy metals arsenic, silver, nickel cobalt cadmium lead and mercury on Pseudomonas aemginosa isolated from infected wounds. Methods Fifty strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested against the heavy metals like arsenic, silver, nickel cobalt cadmium lead and mercury by an agar dilution method. Of the metals used Pseudomonas aemginosa strains were found to be exhibiting high susceptibility to the heavy metal ions. Results and Conclusion - The overall susceptibility patterns of the strains were similar to all 6 heavy metal ions arsenic, nickel cobalt cadmium lead and mercury. Two strains were found to be showing resistance against the silver ions which were isolated from the burns wound infection.

Slime production a virulence marker in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical and environmental specimens, A comparative study of two methods

PG Shivananda Mamatha Ballal

Slime production a virulence marker in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical and environmental specimens, A comparative study of two methods, Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2009. Detection of slime in Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be useful in understanding the virulence of this organism. Here, comparative studies of two phenotypic methods using the tube method and the spectrophotometric method for slime production from 100 clinically and 21 environmentally significant isolates of P aeruginosa were performed. A total of 68 isolates were positive by either of the tests whereas only 34 were positive by both the tests. The tube method detected slime significantly in more number of isolates than the spectrophotometric method. The tube test was found to be superior to the spectrophotometric method in ease of performance, interpretation and sensitivity. Among the clinical isolates, systemic isolates produce less slime compared to wound, respiratory and urinary isolates. Isolates from the hospital environment produced more slime indicating that this virulence marker helps the organism to survive for longer periods and cause nosocomial infections.

Honey as an Antimicrobial Agent Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa isolated from Infected Wounds

2012-01-06 Mamatha Ballal PG Shivananda

J Glob Infect Dis, 2012 Apr-Jun. Background - As natural products garner attention in the medical field due to emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, honey is valued for its antibacterial activity. Objective - Fifty strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds were evaluated for their antibacterial action using honey in comparison with different antibiotics and Dettol. Methodology and Results - All the strains were found to be sensitive to honey at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 20% in comparison with Dettol at 10% using agar dilution method. In the second step, the time kill assay was performed on five isolates of P aeruginosa to demonstrate the bactericidal activity of honey at different dilutions of honey ranging from 20% to 100% at regular time intervals. All the isolates of P. aeruginosa tested were killed in 12-24 h depending on the dilutions of the honey tested. Thus, honey could prevent the growth of P. aeruginosa even if it was diluted by deionized water by fivefolds in vitro. Honey had almost uniform bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa irrespective of their susceptibility to different classes of antibiotics. Conclusion - Honey which is a natural, non-toxic, and an inexpensive product has activity against the P. aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds may make it an alternative topical choice in the treatment of wound infections.

Diabetes mellitus and HIV as co-morbidities in tuberculosis patients of rural south India

Soham Gupta Indira Bairy Hiresave Srinivasa Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay

JIPH, 2011. Objectives -Incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is greatest among patients with impaired immunity. India is experiencing a double epidemic of HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM), both of which are strongly associated with immuno-suppression. This study aimed to discover the prevalence of HIV and DM in both the pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB patients of rural south India, retrospectively. Methods - Medical records of 192 microbiologically diagnosed pulmonary TB and 37 extra-pulmonary TB patients were thoroughly studied and data were extracted. The frequency distribution of HIV and DM was evaluated along with other demographic details such as age, sex and occupation in both groups. Results - The mean age of the pulmonary TB patients was 41.11 ± 15.7 years, with significantly higher (p < 0.0001) preponderance of DM (31.8%) over HIV (8.9%). 72.13% of the diabetic patients belonged to the age group of 41–60 years. Extra-pulmonary TB patients had a mean age of 34.62 ± 12.9, years with a significantly higher (p < 0.006) HIV prevalence of 32.43% over DM (5.4%). 75% of the HIV patients belonged to the age group of 41–60 years. Occupationally, the majority of the pulmonary TB patients were agricultural labourers (25.2%) while the majority of the extra-pulmonary TB patients were housewives or self-employed (18.92%). Conclusion - Though more importance is being given to HIV-TB co-infection, we cannot overlook DM, which showed a significantly higher prevalence in pulmonary TB patients compared to HIV. The rising prevalence of DM in high TB burden countries may adversely affect TB control.

Comparative evaluation of two cold staining methods with the ziehl-neelsen method for the diagnosis of tuberculosis

2009-01-01 Gupta S Prasad V Bairy I Muralidharan S

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 2009. In developing countries pulmonary tuberculosis is usually diagnosed by detecting acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in sputum using a Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) staining method. However, in the field the traditional method of staining is difficult to carry out. This study evaluates the efficiency of two cold staining methods, namely Gabbet’s and a modified two reagent cold staining method compared with the Z-N taken as the gold standard. Triplicate smears were prepared from 267 sputum samples and stained by the Z-N, Gabbet’s, and a modified cold staining method, the smears were positive for AFB in 21 (7.87%), 18 (6.74%) and 19 (7.12%), respectively. The sensitivities for the Gabbet’s and modified cold stain were 85.7% and 90.5%, respectively. The positive agreement between the Z-N and Gabbet’s (92.3%) and Z-N and modified cold stain (95%) were good. The modified cold staining method was less time consuming and easier to perform in the field.

Tuberculosis Pericarditis - A Case Report and Review of Literature

2010-01-01 Shashidhar V Indira Bairy Padma Kumar R

Tuberculosis Pericarditis - A Case Report and Review of Literature, Review of Global Medicine and Health Care Research. Tuberculosis pericarditis is a rare, but life threatening form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and accounts for approximately 4% of acute pericarditis and 7% of cardiac tamponade cases. Mortality due to tuberculosis pericarditis can reach up to 40%. High index of suspicion amongst the treating clinicians supplemented with prompt diagnosis and treatment can reduce the high mortality associated with this disease. We report a case of a young adult male patient who presented with a 2 month history of productive cough and breathlessness of recent onset. Preliminary diagnosis of tuberculosis pericarditis based on his clinical and radiological findings was confirmed with Ziehl-Neelsen’s stain for acid fast bacilli and culture of the pericardial fluid aspirate. The patient responded well to pericardiocentesis and subsequent anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy.

AREAS OF INTEREST, EXPERTISE AND RESEARCH

Area of Interest

Bacteriology

Area of Expertise

Mycobacteriology

Area of Research

Drug Resistance , Ant tubercular Activity of Newer Chemical Compounds and Medicinal Plants , Automation in Screening AFB Smears

Professional Affiliations & Contributions

  • Life Member of IAMM KC, 2011.
  • Life Member of Union Member, 2010.
     

Action of heavy metals on Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from infected wounds

2009-01-01 Shenoy VP Ballal M Shivananda PG

Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine, 2009

Slime production a virulence marker in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical and environmental specimens, A comparative study of two methods

2009-01-01 Shenoy VP Ballal M Shivananda PG

Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2009

Comparative evaluation of two cold staining methods with the Ziehl-Neelsen method for the diagnosis of tuberculosis

2009-01-01 Gupta S Shenoy VP Bairy I Muralidharan S

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 2009

Adequacy of two versus three sputum specimens for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

2009-01-01 Kumar A Bairy I Rao CR Shenoy VP Pattanshetty S Samarasinghe CM

Natl Med J India, 2009

Tuberculous liver abscesses and venous thromboembolism, An unusual association

2010-01-01 Gowrimath K Magazine R Bairy I Chawla K Shenoy VP

Respiratory Medicine CME 3, 2010

Tuberculous Pericarditis, A case report and review of literature

2010-01-01 Shashidhar V Bairy I Kumar P Shenoy VP

Review of Global Medicine and Health Care Research, 2010

Diabetes mellitus and HIV as co-morbidities in tuberculosis patients of rural south India

2011-01-01 Gupta S Shenoy VP Bairy I Srinivasa H Mukhopadhyay C

JIPH 2011

Role of risk factors and socio-economic status in pulmonary tuberculosis, a search for the root cause in patients in a tertiary care hospital, South India, Trop Med Int Health

2011-01-01 Gupta S Shenoy VP Mukhopadhyay C Bairy I Muralidharan S

Trop Med Int Health

Isolated tuberculous epididymoorchitis, an unusual presentation of tuberculosis

2012-01-01 Shenoy VP Vishwanath S D'Souza A Bairy I Thomas J

J Infect Dev Ctries, 2012, .

Anti-tubercular activity of synthesized novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives.

2015-01-01 Ega D Attari Z Mudgal J Bairy I Shenoy VP Nampurath GK

Indian Drugs 2015; 52: 40-44.

Study of drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis cases in south coastal Karnataka. J Epidemiol Glob Health.

2015-01-02 Rao P Chawla K Shenoy VP Mukhopadhyay C Brahmavar V Kamath A Mohapatra AK

J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2015 Feb 14. pii: S2210-6006(15)00025-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jegh.2015.01.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Group A,G and C β hemolytic streptococci

2015-01-01 Shobha KL Kusumakshi Shenoy VP Ramachandra L

International Journal of Medicine. 2015; 3:8-11

An integrated approach using liquid culture system can it make an impact for clinical diagnosis of genitourinary tuberculosis?

2014-01-01 Shenoy VP Chakradhar V Munim F Mukhopadhyay C

Ann Med Helath Sci Res 2014; 4:144-146.

LED fluorescence Microscopy: Leads the Future of Rapid and Effective Pulmonary Tuberculosis Diagnosis.

2014-01-01 Shenoy VP Shetty S Chaitanya T Mukhopadyay C

Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2014; 5: B 752-756.

Characterization of TB-HIV co infected cases of Udupi district in coastal Karnataka.

2014-01-01 Rao P Chawla K Shenoy VP Mukhopadhyay C

BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14(Suppl 3):P52

Effects of selective Medicinal plants against Multi Drug Resistance Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains.

2013-01-01 Bernaites L Shenoy VP Ashok M Nath M Shenoy RP

RJPCBS. 2013; 4: 812-817.

Honey as an antimicrobial agent against pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds.

2012-01-01 Shenoy VP Ballal M Shivananda P Bairy I

J Glob Infect Dis. 2012;4:102-105

Battling the odds an assessment of relevance of sputum sample examination in patients with tubercular pleural effusion

2014-01-01 Amruta Nair

Fifth semester

Pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital south India - a case control study

2014-01-01 Ashwini Kumar.

Fifth semester

Effects of selective medicinal plants against multi drug resistance mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, bernaites

2014-01-01

Culture isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical specimens using various Type of LJ media compared with the conventional LJ medium

2014-01-01 Varsha, Kimmi

Decontamination process in detection mycobacterium tuberculosis: in search of better method

2014-01-01 Mohammed Yousuff

Comparative evaluation of two cold staining methods with the ziehl-neelsen method for the diagnosis of tuberculosis

2014-01-01 Soham Gupta

Relevance of sputum examination in patients suspected with tuberculosis pleural effusion

2014-01-01 Sudipta

Antibacterial effect of triphala against common wound pathogens

2014-01-01 Asha Patil Kusumakshi Nayak

Smear Microscopy and Culture Positive rates among the HIV co infected patients suspected of pulmonary and Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis - STS

2014-01-01 Pushpak N

Smear Microscopy and Culture Positive rates among the HIV co infected patients suspected of pulmonary and Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis - STS. 5th semester MBBS student